Shu Han was one of the kingdoms that made up China’s Three Kingdoms. It was, perhaps, the most successful kingdom because it only had two emperors: Xuande and Hou Zhu.
Xuande’s name at birth was Liu Bei (Liu Pei). He was the ruler of the Kingdom of Shu Han in southwestern China from 221-223 CE. Xuande means “Admired Emperor”.
After the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty, Xuande’s Kingdom of Shu Han was one of The Three Kingdoms (Wei, Wu, Shu Han) that attempted to assert control of the Chinese Empire. The Kingdom of Shu Han was located in Sichuan and had its capital at Chengdu.
Emperor Xuande, through his prime minister, succeeded in becoming a political ally with the Kingdom of Wu in the southeast. This strategy meant more soldiers to help control Shu Han and to help deal with threats from the northern Kingdom of Wei.
Emperor Xuande’s kingdom appears as part of the novel, Romance of the Three Kingdoms. However, not only is Emperor Xuande immortalized in Chinese history, his friend and associate, Guan Yu, became a famous hero defending those without power against those who wielded power.
Xuande died in 223 CE and Hou Zhu succeeded him as ruler of the Kingdom of Shu Han.
Emperor Hou Zhu
After the death of Xuande in 223 CE, Hou Zhu became the second and last ruler of the Kingdom of Shu Han in 223 CE.
In 263 CE, the Kingdom of Shu Han was attacked General Sima Zhao (Ssu-ma Chao) from the Kingdom of Wei. The Kingdom of Wei was finally victorious in overthrowing a political rival.